Bryan I. Yamashita, W.R. Farrington High School, Honolulu, HI THE CIVIL WAR -- EMANCIPATION EXPERIENCE Appropriate for grades 10-12. OVERVIEW: Few experiences in mankind can compare to the destruction and devastation of war. And yet, almost every generation of man cannot escape its continuing reality. As Americans we have had our share of experiences. Since our inception, with the American Revolutionary War, we have been at war. Furthermore, in our 200 plus years of existence there was one war that cannot be compared to any other in terms of American loss of lives and destruction. This war was the American Civil War. As in any civil war there is no winner- only a loser, as losses on both sides constitute the total loss of that country. This lesson will attempt to examine the changes that took place in the lives of Americans that were the result of this tragic war. PURPOSE: The purpose of this inquiry lesson is to give students an affective experience of the pre and post American Civil War experience on Americans- Blacks and Whites (southerners and northerners). OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to: 1. Given a specific situation, identify the period of history depicted after the inquiry period. 2. Given a specific situation, identify the following groups after the inquiry period. 3. Observe and experience varying emotions of each group. 4. Observe and distinguish the differences in lifestyle of each group. 5. Hypothesize and empathize what life was like for Americans of that time. ACTIVITIES: 1. Randomly break class into 3 groups- A, B, C by size. Group A (Slaves) 1/4 of class (note: Do not tell Group B (S. Whites) 1/4 of class the class what each Group C (N. Whites) 1/2 of class group represents) 2. Have each member identify themselves using a piece of tape and marker. It should be visible. 3. Move desks apart and divide the classroom in half. Divide the room with tape on the floor (see below). Groups A and B will share area I. Move desks so 1/4 of area I is clear of chairs and desks and spread newspapers on the floor (see shaded area). This area should be bordered with tape. | |///////////////| <-- Newspaper, No Chairs | |///////////////| <-- Tape (1/4 of Section I) | | | | II | I | | | | | | | | | | 4. Uncover Chart I and read over to each group's location, food allotment, and movement: Chart I Group Location Food Alloted Movement A Sit on newspapers Plate of broken None crackers B Sit on chair in Plate of whole Full (anywhere area I or II crackers in classroom) C Sit on chair in Plate of whole Full (anywhere area I or II crackers in classroom) 5. Begin Part I for 5-10 minutes. Direct groups to their location, their ability to move freely or none at all, and give each group either broken or whole crackers on a plate to be shared with that group. Let member of only groups B and C speak freely to one another. Let all groups converse to each other. 6. STOP Part I. Uncover Chart II and read over to the class: Chart II Group Location Food Alloted Movement A Chairs Plate of broken Shaded area crackers B Chairs Plate of broken Area I only crackers C Chairs Plate of whole Area II only crackers 7. Call attention to the class and begin Part II for 5 minutes. Now, there is no movement or talking between groups B and C as they must remain in their respective areas (I or II). Also extract 1/2 the people from group B into a neutral corner where they cannot speak, eat, or move from their chairs. 8. STOP Part II. Uncover Chart III and read over to the class: Chart III Group Location Food Alloted Movement A Chairs Plate of whole Full crackers B Chairs None Full C Chairs Plate of whole Full crackers 9. Begin Part III for 5 minutes. Direct students as done in Part I and Part II according to Chart III. Do away with the shaded area. Remove all tape from the floor. There is full movement for all groups. However, Group B only receives broken crackers. 10. STOP. Return room to original order. RESOURCES/MATERIALS NEEDED: Materials: pen markers, masking tape, newspapers, chart paper/chalk board, 3 paper plates, 5 packages saltines. Time Required: 90 minutes. TYING IT ALL TOGETHER: (debrief and discuss) 1. Did you like this activity? Why or why not? 2. How did you feel about being in Group A, B, or C? 3. How were the groups different from each other? 4. What was the best group to be in? The worst? 5. What major event in American History did this simulation depict? Answer: The American Civil War. 6. Who did each group represent? Answer: Group A... Black Slaves Group B... White Southerners Group C... White Northerners 7. What did the headings in the charts represent? Answer: Location (chairs or floor).... Social Status Food Alloted (whole or broken crackers)... Economic Status Movement (full or restrained)............. Political Status 8. What did Parts I, II, III represent? Answer: Part I..... Pre Civil War Part II.... Civil War Part III... Post Civil War 9. According to the headings of the charts and what they represent, how do you infer about each group? Example: Group A had to sit on the floor depicting a lower social status, had to eat broken crackers depicting a lower economic status, and were restrained in a certain area. Therefore, Group A represented the Black Slaves of the South. Also note how Group A's status changed from Part I to Part III, reflecting the changes from Pre to Post Civil War. In Part I, Group B had chairs to sit on, whole crackers to eat, and free movement. Respectively, this depicted good social, economic, and political status. However, in Part II Group B had been restrained to Area I as battle lines were drawn between the North and South. Also, the South withstood excessive destruction as most of the war was fought there. This was depicted as half of the group was removed and put into a neutral area. In Part III, political and social status were regained as movement was unrestrained and chairs used. However, economic status changed negatively, shown by broken crackers as it suffered from the destruction of its cities and factories. Agriculture changed drastically as plantations closed and slaves became free. In Parts I, II, III, Group C (White Northerners) enjoyed good social, political, and economic status because the war was fought on southern soil thereby not destroying northern property. Furthermore, northern industries may have prospered as war materials were in demand and furnished. Written Assignment: 1-2 p. Reaction Paper Things to Include: 1. What group were they in. 2. What changes, if any, occurred from Parts I to III. 3. How did they feel about their location, food, and movement. 4. Hypothesize what life was like for Black Slaves, White Northerners, White Southerners. 5. Why should the American Civil War be considered a major event in American History.
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