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TITLE:  Alliance Game, International Alliances

AUTHOR:  EILEEN THRASH, Bedford Junior High School;
         Bedford, Texas

GRADE LEVEL:  9;  WORLD HISTORY

OBJECTIVE(s):  After students have completed the
Alliance simulation game they will understand how
alliances made before WWI influenced the makeup of the
war and its outcome.

ACTIVITIES AND PROCEDURES:  This lesson may take one or
two days (teacher preference)

Divide the students into groups one group for each
country.  Students must choose an Ambassador to be the
negotiator.  One Secretary of State.  One Scribe.  All
other students in the group will be Under Secretaries.
Only the Ambassador may visit other groups to make
deals. The Scribe will put in writing any proposals
made to any other country. At the end it will be the
Secretary of State who delivers any message or proposal
from his/her country to the general body (entire class)
of states.

Each group will have the General information to set the
stage for the activity.  There should be one
Confidential report for each member of each group for
their country.  Maps for each group.  Several Proposal
sheets for each group.

There is a NEWS BULLETIN which may be handed out at
teacher discretion.


                WORLD SITUATION SUMMARY

1.   Your six nations represent the main factions in a
     troubled world situation.
2.   There has been general peace on the continent for
     about fifty years.  This peace has been hard to
     maintain in the rapidly changing, expanding,
     industrial and technical world.
3.   There has been increased intervention in the
     underdeveloped parts of the world by opposing
     factions.  Both Caldonia and Penland have made
     claim to some disputed territory in the "rubber
     rich" area of Asia.
4.   There has been a strong rivalry between Morovia
     and Yorkton centered around boundary disputes over
     the Great forest area on their borders.
5.   Yorkton has also been involved in controversies
     with Penland over control of the mouth of the
     Makeshift River.  Yorkton currently controls the
     area.
6.   Bahkan is a relatively new nation, once having
     been a part of Penland.  They gained their
     independence peacefully under a previous
     government.
7.   Penland is very interested in regaining Bahkan,
     although no overt action has been taken in that
     direction by the Penlandian Government.
8.   There is a small nationalistic group in Penland
     demanding that their government retake Bahkan.
     It is suspected that this group has been leading
     border raids against Bahkan.
9.   Caldonia has been somewhat successful in keeping
     out of some of the squabbles because of her
     geographical isolation from the neighboring
     states.
10.  It is common knowledge that Penland has the most
     powerful army on the continent.  Caldonia is the
     strongest naval power.
11.  Various nations have entered into military
     alliances which guarantee mutual support if war
     begins.
12.  Major newspapers in each country have been
     carrying on feuds with each other and they  have
     helped fan the flames of unrest and hatred within
     each nation.
13.  This is a time of extreme nationalism in which
     most countrymen support their respective
     governments to the fullest in foreign affairs.
14.  Because of the fear between the various nations,
     generated by the uneasy peace, there has been a
     continual race to build military armaments.
15.  Sandia has been troubled by domestic unrest, and
     the government is not considered to be too stable.
     There have been reports that a large faction of
     unemployed workers and peasants are banding
     together and are planning a revolution.  At this
     point there is no reliable information which would
     indicate that they would be successful.



                WORLD SITUATION SUMMARY

Known Alliances:  These are the only alliances which
have been announced publicly

Country        Alliances           What Nation
---------      ----------          -----------
Bahkan            Yes              Sandia
Caldonia          Yes              Yorkton
Morovia           Yes              -------
Penland           Yes              -------
Sandia            Yes              Bahkan
Yorkton           Yes              Caldonia


                   MILITARY STRENGTH

COUNTRY        ARMY        SIZE         RATING
---------      -----     ---------      --------
Bahkan         Yes         100,000      Good
Caldonia       Yes       1,500,000      Good
Morovia        Yes         150,000      Good
Penland        Yes       7,000,000      Excellent
Sandia         Yes       8,000,000      Poor
Yorkton        Yes       3,000,000      Fair


COUNTRY        NAVY        SIZE         RATING
---------      -----     ---------      --------
Bahkan         Yes            500       Fair
Caldonia       Yes      1,500,000       Excellent
Morovia        No        --------       None
Penland        Yes        250,000       Fair
Sandia         Yes         50,000       Fair
Yorkton        Yes         25,000       Fair


                  NATIONAL STATISTICS

COUNTRY        POPULATION     NATIONAL INCOME
---------      ----------     ---------------
Bahkan          3,500,000        80,000,000
Caldonia       34,000,000       280,000,000
Morovia        15,000,000       150,000,000
Penland        40,000,000       230,000,000
Sandia         77,000,000       120,000,000
Yorkton        38,000,000       200,000,000



                     CONFIDENTIAL

                  Caldonia Data Sheet

     The following facts give you a background on your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, this is confidential and should not be seen
by any of the other countries.  Your goal is to
maintain peace, if at all possible.  You  will be
called upon to present your decisions orally and in
writing.

1.   You have the largest and most powerful navy in the
     world.  Your geographical location has been an
     asset to you historically.  The mountain range to
     your east has provided you with protection against
     invasion from your three neighbors.
2.   You are aware of Penland's interest in Bahkan, and
     you have attempted to negotiate a peaceful
     settlement.  Bahkan has tried to get you to join
     her in a military alliance.  You have resisted her
     attempts so far, but popular sentiment in your
     country favors Bahkan.
3.   Historically you have had an alliance with
     Yorkton, and this is well known to the rest of the
     world.  You know Yorkton has had a running feud
     with Penland and Morovia, but you do not consider
     it to be that serious.  You do not think it will
     lead to hostilities.
4.   Yorkton has publicly supported Bahkan but because
     of her weak military posture, you do not think
     Yorkton is willing to back her words with military
     support of Bahkan.
5.   Your main conflict with your neighbors, has been
     with Penland.  You have been quarreling over some
     territory in South-East Asia.  Penland has posed a
     threat to your supremacy in this area.   You will
     not tolerate this.
6.   At present, you have no interest in world war, but
     only hope to  avert it .  You have considered the
     possibility of letting Penland take Bahkan, if she
     will allow you to remain supreme in South East
     Asia.
7.   You have maintained cordial, but not friendly
     relations with Morovia.  You strongly oppose her
     interest in Yorkton forest land.  This is
     especially important to you since you   buy most
     of your lumber from Yorkton and get it at a very
     reasonable rate.  You think Morovian interests
     would change you more for this same service.
8.   Sandia has been a friend to you.  You know that
     her current government is shaky and, therefore,
     have stayed out of her domestic affairs.  You have
     heard rumors that Penland has designs on part of
     Sandia, but you think that these are false and
     have been created merely to build animosity
     between you and Penland.
9.   What concerns you most is maintaining peace and
     restraining Penland from unlimited growth which
     could pose a threat to you.
10.  You must also be concerned with the condition of
     Yorkton since your alliance with her could bring
     you into conflict.



                     CONFIDENTIAL
                  Morovia Data Sheet

     The following facts give you a background of your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, this is confidential and should not been seen
by any of the other countries.  Your goal is to
maintain peace, if at all possible.  You will be called
upon to present your decisions orally and in writing.

1.   You are located in the central heartland of the
     continent.  You currently have a small but
     efficient army, and think you could increase its
     size if circumstances so dictate.
2.   Penland has been your long-time friend and you
     have joined her in a secret alliance. This
     alliance would guarantee your mutual assistance in
     case either of you declare war or are attacked.
3.   You believe that if war occurs, you will gain
     quite a bit of what is presently Yorkton and
     possible some of Sandia.  You have no guarantee
     that this would happen and since Penland is so
     powerful she may leave you nothing.
4.   Your primary interest in Yorkton is the great
     forest which you believe would be a boost to your
     economy.  You have previously made claim to this
     land.  Since you are a "land-locked" nation.
     Penlandian control of the Makshift River would
     give you access to the North Ocean and a
     reasonable trade route.
5.   Military, you would probably thrust your main
     force at Yorkton.  The swamps to the south give
     what you believe to be a ready defense against
     Sandian aggression.  Of course, this would leave
     you open to the west and possible attack by
     Caldonia, if they were to intercede.  They only
     have a small army, but you  would probably receive
     the brunt of any action they might take.
6.   In an attempt to determine what Caldonian
     intentions might be in case of war, you have held
     secret discussions with her.  You received no
     concrete information and you are worried about
     what action she might take.  The fact that you
     held these discussions should be kept from Penland
     because they may doubt your sincere interest in
     your alliance with them.
7.   Because of your central location, you might fact
     attack on three fronts at once.  You know you have
     Penlandian assistance guaranteed, but you must
     consider the possibility of turning your plains
     into the main battlefield of any war which may
     occur.
8.   Much of what you do will depend on the actions of
     Penland, unless you are willing to break your
     alliance with them.  This, of course, will deny
     you land acquisition and will earn you the
     animosity of powerful Penland.



                     CONFIDENTIAL
                  Penland Data Sheet

     The following facts give you a background of your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, this is confidential and should not be sen by
any of the other countries.  Your goal is to maintain
peace, if at all possible.  You will be called upon to
present your decisions orally and in writing.

1.   Your army is considered to be the best on the
     continent.  It is well trained and has excellent
     leadership at all levels.  Your military leaders
     have been pushing for action in the direction of
     Bahkan.  They believe this land is rightfully a
     part of Penland and should be retaken.
2.   A strong group of nationalists have also been
     pushing for an attack upon Bahkan.  They had led
     night raids on this country, causing disturbances
     along the borders.  Although your government has
     publicly condemned these raids, it has secretly
     supported them with military equipment.
3.   Historically you've had a fierce rivalry with
     Yorkton.  The controversy centers around control
     of the mouth of the Makeshift River.  Yorkton
     currently controls the mouth of the river and
     allows you minimum access to it.  It would be very
     beneficial to you if you could gain control of
     this important geographical feature.
4.   Your strongest ally has been Morovia to your west.
     You have entered into a secret alliance with them
     which would guarantee mutual assistance if either
     of you went to war.  Morovia could provide you
     with a small but efficient army and plenty of food
     which you would need in case of a lengthy war.
5.   The Sandian government, your intelligence reveals,
     is about to topple, and you believe that you might
     be able to expand your boundaries in her
     direction.
6.   Caldonia would pose the biggest threat to any of
     your adventures.  Her navy could pose a strong
     threat to any success you might have.  You don't
     have any idea how Caldonia might react to
     expansion on your part.  She has attempted to
     maintain peace through negotiation.  You should
     try to appease her if possible.
7.   Presently, your main desire is to retake Bahkan
     and then concern yourself with other activities
     and goals.  You should attempt to convince
     Caldonia that Bahkan is your only concern and that
     is would be in her best interest to remain
     neutral.
8.   Another alternative would be to drop your designs
     for further expansion and try for peace.  This
     would probably be your last choice.
9.   You just received an intelligence report that
     Morovia has held secret talks with Caldonia.  She
     has said nothing to you about these talks.  You
     have no reason to doubt her loyalty, but you
     believe you have a right to know what these talks
     were about.



                     CONFIDENTIAL
                   Sandia Data Sheet

     The following facts give you a background of your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, this is confidential and should not be sen by
any of the other countries.  Your goal is to maintain
peace if at all possible .  You will b e called upon to
present your decisions orally and in writing.

1.   Your government is currently in very trying times.
     There has been a movement amongst many of your
     people to overthrow your regime.
2.   Probably the last thing you want is to become
     involved in a world war.  The pressure might be
     too great on your government.
3.   Your army is large, but not well trained, and some
     of your generals may not be loyal to your
     programs.
4.   Geographically, you have some protection from the
     mountains to your north and the swamps to your
     northeast.
5.   Yorkton has approached you about a possible
     military alliance with her.  You haven't signed
     yet, but you think it may be beneficial to do so.
     A show of force against Penland aggression may be
     effective.
6.   You are a partner in an alliance with Bahkan, a
     long-time friend.  You realize her untenable
     position, which may draw you into war with
     Penland.  You want to keep this commitment but
     hope this will be unnecessary.
7.   It is rumored that Penland may have intentions in
     your direction.  You have no valid information to
     prove this.  But, if it is so, you could not
     defend yourself without the aid of allies.
8.   You must create a situation in which you would
     have help if Penland attacks.
9.   The settlement of the situation over Bahkan could
     be very important to you.  You would rather not
     concentrate on foreign affairs at the present, but
     would rather stay close to the domestic scene.
10.  One of your ministers has suggested that you break
     your Bahkan alliance and attempt to join Penland
     or remain neutral if she allows you to.  A problem
     with this solution is, if Penland does attack, you
     will probably be without allies.
11.  Watch Caldonia closely, her ultimate actions may
     very well aid you in formulating your final
     decisions.


                     CONFIDENTIAL
                  Yorkton Data Sheet

     The following facts give you a background of your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, this is confidential and should not be seen
by any of the other countries.  Your goal is to
maintain peace, if at all possible.  You will be called
upon to present your decisions orally and in writing.

1.   You possess and can raise a relatively large army.
     At the present time your army is not too strong
     and is poorly trained.
2.   Caldonia has been your long-time friend and you
     are partners in a military alliance.  This fact is
     known to the rest of the world.
3.   You have publicly supported Bahkan's stand for
     independence in opposition to Penlandian
     intentions.  In fact, you have signed a secret
     military alliance with them.  They have promised
     to keep this secret unless you announce the
     existence of the alliance first.
4.   You have had a long running feud with Penland over
     c control of the mouth of the Makeshift.  You
     control it at present, but fear that Penland may
     resort to force to gain control.
5.   Your main industry has been your forest to the
     south .Morovia has made no attempt to secure this
     area, but you have it on good source that she is
     interested in making a move in this direction in
     the near future.
6.   You have no reason to doubt that Caldonia would
     come to your aid if necessary.  Of course, if you
     are first required to defend Bahkan, by virtue of
     your secret alliance, Caldonia may not recognize
     her alliance with you,
7.   You must create an emotional state which would
     cause Caldonia to fear the intentions of Penland.
     If Caldonia can be made to believe that Penland
     could ultimately threaten her, she may be more
     likely to defend you despite your secret treaty
     with Bahkan.  You will need Caldonian support in
     the event of war, if you are going to have a
     chance of defeating either Morovia or Penland.
8.   Sandia, to the south, could prove to be an
     important ally.  Her government is weak; her army
     is very large.  If hostilities broke out, she
     could be important on the Southern Morovian Front,
     thereby, taking some of the pressure off you.  You
     have discussed such an alliance with Sandian
     Officials and have offered to sign a treaty with
     her. She gave you no answer, but you have hopes
     she will sign.
9.   Your hope is that Caldonia will keep her alliance,
     and Sandia will sign one.  You believe these
     alliances will cause Penland and Morovia to forget
     their desires to advance against Bahkan and you.



                     CONFIDENTIAL
                   Bahkan Data Sheet
     The following facts give you a background of your
country.  Read and become familiar with them.  Keep the
world situation in mind as you analyze these facts.
Remember, This is confidential and should not be seen
by any of the other countries.  Your goal is to
maintain peace, if at all possible.  You will be called
upon to present your decisions orally and in writing.

1.   Your country is relatively new.  You were once a
     state of Penland and achieved independence through
     peaceful means under a prior Penlandian
     government.
2.   You have what is thought to be one of the smallest
     armies in the world.  It is well trained, but
     could not stand long against the Penlandian
     invasion.
3.   You have attempted to enlist moral support for
     your cause by publicizing and condemning the
     border raids of Penlandian Nationalists.  You have
     information which leads you to believe that the
     Penlandian Government is supporting these raids.
4.   Sandia has been a long-time friend and has
     verbally supported your position.  You have joined
     her in a military alliance which guarantees your
     mutual support if either of you are attacked.
5.   Because of her long feud with Penland, Yorkton has
     also signed an alliance with you which guarantees
     military support in case either of you are
     attached.  This alliance is secret and is only
     known to you and Yorkton.
6.   You hope that knowledge of these alliances will
     cause Penland to allow you to keep your freedom.
     However, your alliance with Yorkton is secret and
     contains a clause which permits only Yorkton to
     make this alliance public information.  If you
     release this information the alliance could be
     broken and you may be without an important ally.
     At the present time you are willing to release
     this information because you believe that Yorkton
     would continue to honor her agreement.
7.   You have held secret talks with Caldonia in hopes
     of enlisting her aid.  Her navy could be most
     useful to you, but on the oceans and on the East
     River, your only outlet to the sea.  So far these
     talks have produced nothing concrete.  Caldonia
     remains friendly and in principle supports your
     opinion, but refuses to enter into any alliance
     with you.
8.   At this point you are attempting to negotiate a
     peaceful solution with Penland.  You are willing
     to let her have access to the portion of the East
     River which falls within your boundaries.  In
     addition you would lift all tariffs on goods which
     she sells you and you would make an agreement to
     buy all your steel and coal form her.
9.   Above all, you must maintain your alliances and
     work for new ones; without them you would probably
     be attacked immediately.



                     NEWS BULLETIN


                                          JULY 28, 1918

TO:         MINISTERS OF STATE

FROM:       News Reporter

DATELINE:   Bahkan

     The government of Bahkan has reported that Penland
nationalists have staged a massive armed attack along
her borders.  They have taken control of the East River
and have bombed government facilities in the capital.

     It is believed that the raiders are members of the
same group which have been staging smaller raids on the
Bahkan border in previous months.

     This action is by far the most serious yet taken
by Penland sympathizers.  Bahkan officials charge that
this attack was led by the regular Penlandian Army, and
is an act of outright aggression against Bahkan
territorial integrity.

     Government representatives in Penland have refused
to comment on the current crisis.  This leads to
speculation that Bahkan officials are making a
legitimate charge.

     There are also reports that there have been
     massive troop movements in Penland, both in the
     direction of Sandia and Yorkton.



                     CONFIDENTIAL


                      STATE PAPER



                _______________________
                        country


PROPOSAL:




                    Signed    ______________________
                              Minister of State

                              ______________________
                              Deputy  Minister

                              ______________________
                              Assistant Minister

                              ______________________
                              Assistant Minister


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